climatefinancelandscape.org

Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) produces the most comprehensive inventory of climate change investment available. We are committed to improving the understanding of climate finance flows at the global, national, and local levels.

This site features climate-relevant investment figures from CPI’s report, Global Climate Finance: An Updated View 2018.

All dollar amounts are in nominal USD billion unless otherwise stated.

Global investment to address climate change has been steadily increasing.

Total climate finance, in billions:

Average annual investment, 2015/2016 $463 billion
$214 billion (46%)
PUBLIC
$249 billion (54%)
PRIVATE
Average annual investment, 2015/2016 $463 billion
Public investment (46%) $214 billion
Private investment (54%) $249 billion

A record in 2015 was driven by a surge in renewable investments, particularly in China, the U.S., and Japan. The subsequent decrease in 2016 was due to a combination of falling technology costs and lower deployment in some countries.

Taking into account annual fluctuations, the average flows across 2015/2016, $463 billion, were 27% higher than during 2013/2014.

There is also evidence this overall increase will continue. Our preliminary estimates for global climate finance flows in 2017 range from approximately $510 billion to $530 billion based on early data showing steady renewable energy investment, rising electric vehicle investment, and rising investment from development banks.

Explore Analysis:Overview
Global Overview

Where is investment coming from?

While private investment continues to account for the major share of climate investments - at 54% annually for 2015/2016 – latest data show that public entities like governments and national development banks have also increased their investments significantly.

National Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) reported almost double climate finance commitments in 2015/2016 over the 2013/2014 period, mostly spent domestically.

Project developers, which consistently drive the largest volume of private finance, increased their spending 61% from 2014 to 2015. This was likely a response from Chinese project developers to build before an important renewable energy revenue support policy was scheduled to decline.

Commercial finance institutions have also taken a larger role. The share of more traditional lenders in the climate financing mix signals a maturing technology market in some areas.

The share of direct institutional investment in projects remains small but is growing rapidly – another positive signal of market maturity for some sectors.

On the public side, development finance institutions accounted for the majority of public flows, contributing 89% of the total public finance.

In anticipation of the Paris Agreement, multilateral development finance institutions committed to scale up climate finance, with targets ranging from 25 to 40% of their total business by 2020. As of early 2017, these institutions are collectively already more than 3/4 of the way towards those goals.

Explore Analysis:Cities: An emerging finance destination
Cities: An emerging finance destination
Explore Analysis:Was there a Paris Effect?
Was there a Paris Effect?

The vast majority of investment continues to be spent in the same country in which it is sourced.

Finance: Domestic source International source
2014
2015
2016
Average total
global investment $463 billion
Americas
Central Asia
and Eastern Europe
East Asia
and Pacific
Japan, Korea
and Israel
Latin America
& the Caribbean
Middle East
and North Africa
Other Oceania
South Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Western Europe
Transregional
NB: The regional and total data is an average of the last two years, 2015 and 2016

Over 2015–2016, 81% of finance was raised in the same country in which it was spent. The East Asia and Pacific (non-OECD countries) received 39% of flows over 2015/2016, followed by Western Europe at 23% and Americas (OECD countries only) at 12%.

Investments by region, 2015/2016 annual average

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M 480.6,187. L 479.9,185.9 476,180.7 477.5,177.7 474.9,170.8 475.6,169.7 475.2,169.2 476.4,166.5 475.8,164.1 467,159.9 460.7,162.8 452.8,162.7 452,162 450.8,162 448,158.4 448.5,156.9 442.4,157.6 440.6,156.3 439.4,157.1 440.9,162.4 439.7,163 439.6,162.5 424.1,164 423.2,163.8 421.8,166.5 421.8,168.4 418,177 414.8,177.7 412.9,177.1 410.9,176.4 410.1,176.9 410.8,176.5 408.6,177.4 408.5,177.7 403.6,177.3 403.1,176.9 398.8,176.6 398.3,175.9 394.4,175 393.9,174 392.6,173.3 388.4,174.2 387.2,175.8 387.5,177.9 385.9,179.4 377.7,176.4 376.9,174.5 368.2,172.3 367.7,171.4 367.2,171.8 365.9,170.6 368,167.5 367,165.8 368,163.1 366.2,163.7 366.3,162.7 365.4,162.8 365.5,162.5 334.4,167.6 332.7,166 310.2,194.9 307.3,201.3 315.8,201 315.8,197.4 317.8,196.2 318.3,190.3 324.3,190.4 325.2,187.1 350.7,204.4 351.1,206 370,196.1 375.5,197.8 378.5,196.3 395.8,205.1 398.1,203.8 398.1,199.4 417.1,200 419.8,197.5 421.2,196.3 420.7,194.8 421.4,194.8 416.5,185.7 416.7,185.8 414.3,180.3 418,185.9 419.6,181.4 419,185 419.8,185.1 436.5,214.8 436.1,215 437.9,220.9 456.7,213.9 457.5,212.3 468.3,206.4 469.8,202.5 470.4,203 473.1,198.1 466.8,194 465.7,189.6 462,193.2 461.8,193.6 456.8,194.7 455.6,194.1 455,193.9 455.3,193.3 455.4,190.4 454,190.6 453.7,192.9 451.3,186.9 451,187.3 450.1,186.6 449.8,186.3 447.7,181.7 448.2,181.5 447.9,180.4 449,180.5 449.8,180 449.7,179.5 449.9,179.4 454,182.9 454.9,185.2 463.9,188.2 464.1,187.8 465.1,187.4 467.2,188 467.7,190 474.4,191.5 474.8,191.3 476.9,192 477.3,190.9 478.2,189.2 480.3,188.3 z
America$56BILLION (12%)
Central Asia and Eastern Europe$10BILLION (2%)
East Asia and Pacific$180BILLION (39%)
Japan, Korea and Israel$26BILLION (6%)
Latin America and the Caribbean$26BILLION (6%)
Middle East and North Africa$8BILLION (2%)
Other Oceania$4BILLION (1%)
South Asia$22BILLION (5%)
Sub-Saharan Africa$12BILLION (3%)
Western Europe$107BILLION (23%)
Transregional$12BILLION (3%)

But is it enough?

Overall, we note that these figures represent a small share of the overall economic transition required to address climate change. The last Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report showed a $1.6 - 3.8 trillion energy system investment requirement to keep global warming within a 1.5 degree scenario and avoid the most harmful effects of climate change.

Explore Analysis:India
India

Investments must shift from high-carbon to low-carbon activities if we are to avoid dangerous climate change.

Total fossil fuel investment still dwarfs climate-related investment. This decreases the effectiveness of climate investment. It also introduces risks to the financial system as, for example, oil or coal assets become “stranded assets.”

Explore Analysis:Finance for energy access
Finance for energy access

There are bright spots to learn from. Solar and wind are a clear success story.

Investment in renewable electricity generation more than doubled that of fossil fuel power generation investment over 2015 and 2016 (note this does not include upstream and downstream investments).

Annual investment in solar PV and onshore wind have led to deployment on track to meet their share of global goals to avoid dangerous climate change, according to IEA scenarios.IEA Energy Technology Perspectives 2016

There is also evidence of increasing investment for electric vehicles.

Investment in electric vehicles has been increasing, growing 54% each year on a compound basis since 2012. In 2015/2016, households spent an average of USD 11 billion on electric vehicles, while governments spent $4 billion on incentives for electric vehicles.

Despite this progress, many sectors still falling short of investment required

Read more about:

A clearer picture of climate finance can better inform decision makers and investors

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Private: Total finance $249 billion
  • check
    Renewable Energy $238 billion
  • Energy efficiency ?
  • check
    Transport $11 billion
  • Land Use ?
  • Adaptation ?
  • Other ?
Private: Total finance $480 billion
  • check
    Renewable Energy $238 billion
  • check
    Energy efficiency $231 billionInternational Energy Agency
  • check
    Transport $11 billion
  • Land Use n/a
  • Adaptation n/a
  • Other n/a
plus
Public: DFI & international finance $214 billion
  • check
    Renewable Energy $57 billion
  • check
    Energy efficiency $29 billion
  • check
    Transport $81 billion
  • check
    Land Use $4 billion
  • check
    Adaptation $22 billion
  • check
    Other $21 billion
equal
Public: Domestic budgets ?
  • Renewable Energy ?
  • Energy efficiency ?
  • Transport ?
  • Land Use ?
  • Adaptation ?
  • Other ?
Total climate finance captured by this report $463 billion
  • Total Renewable Energy ?
  • Total Energy efficiency ?
  • Total Transport ?
  • Total Land Use ?
  • Total Adaptation ?
  • Other ?
Total potential climate finance $463-694 billion
  • Total Renewable Energy ?
  • Total Energy efficiency ?
  • Total Transport ?
  • Total Land Use ?
  • Total Adaptation ?
  • Other ?
plus
plus
equal

Total climate finance captured by this report

plus
plus
equal

Total climate finance we know is out there

Several promising trends in climate investment and policy also deserve recognition. They could mean a better outlook to come.

The Paris agreement means the majority of nations are working to implement climate plans, many of which also include investment pathways.
1

Article 2.1c of the Paris Agreement includes a long-term ambition to “make finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.” The articulation of a long-term and systematic finance goal in an international agreement can bring focus to efforts to engage financial system actors as well as efforts to ensure domestic governmental spending as a whole is consistent with 2-degree pathways.

A number of initiatives engage broader capital markets, the financial system, and large corporations to align with low-carbon and climate-resilient development.
2

Tools, investment criteria and frameworks to assist investors to embed low carbon and climate resilient business practices are becoming more commonplace. These include:

  • 300 corporations have committed to set science-based targets on their emissions profile in line with 2-degree scenarios, to assist investors in assessing their low carbon commitments.
  • The Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosure (TCFD) established by the Financial Stability Board (FSB) launched its final report in June 2017 emphasizing the need for investors and asset managers to implement scenario analysis in assessing the physical and transition risks to climate change as well as opportunities to create investor value over the long-term.
  • The implementation of article 173 for French-based investors requiring reporting on portfolio alignment with low carbon transitions underscores the potential for more active regulatory environments governing asset allocation by investors.
Efforts to green existing public financial flows are beginning to take root (though more work remains).
3

Since 2011, efforts by public finance institutions have contributed to greater transparency and clarity on climate finance flows. Still, there is more work to do in aligning public finance investments with low-carbon and climate-resilience needs. Specific areas for improvement include integrating climate resilience into public investment decisions, channeling finance from high-carbon activities to low-carbon ones, and ensuring national DFIs take on best practices.

New investment vehicles are on the rise.
4

The Landscape tracks new and primary investments into projects, and does not capture refinancing, acquisitions or public offerings. As a result, large institutional investors and asset managers who operate primarily in secondary markets make up less than 1% of the total Landscape flows. However, through the Global Innovation Lab for Climate Finance and other initiatives, investment opportunities tailored to these investors are under development and implementation, with a focus on opportunities in energy efficiency, water, land use, insurance, and adaptation.

Want to know more? Read the full report for more in-depth analysis:

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About Climate Policy Initiative

Climate Policy Initiative (CPI) works to improve the most important energy and land use policies around the world, with a particular focus on finance. We answer pressing questions posed by decision makers through in-depth analysis on what works and what does not.

Learn more on our website.

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